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Fighter jets, stealth bombers, attack drones and air-traveling missiles all need to “operate at speed” in a fast-changing great power conflict era. What that means is that “sensor to shooter” time (how fast data can go from a sensor to a war-fighter) needs to be drastically sped up. Without that speed, warfighters won’t be able to react as quickly to threats and it will be harder to win.

When faced with fast, multi-frequency, long-range precision fire from enemy air defenses, air attackers simply must “operate at speed,” according to U.S. Air Forces, Europe Commander General Jeffrey Harrigian, who used the phrase in a discussion with The Mitchell Institute for Aerospace Studies. 

Harrigian, who is also now the Commander of U.S. Air Forces Africa, ran much of the air campaign during Operation Inherent Resolve against ISIS; he offered a first-hand war perspective in a conversation with retired Lieutenant General David Deptula, Dean of the Mitchell Institute.

NEW AIR FORCE STEALTH BOMBER ARRIVES IN JUST ‘2 YEARS’

The opportunity to operate with air supremacy in uncontested environments is, essentially, over, as joint forces prepare for warfare in high-threat areas against advanced enemy forces, sophisticated air defenses and rival fifth-generation stealth fighters. U.S. forces, of course, enjoyed overwhelming air superiority during the years of counterinsurgency in Iran and Afghanistan, a circumstance enabling most key combat decisions to travel all the way up the echelon into an “air operations center.” Now, warfighters and commanders themselves operating at the edge of combat will need to be empowered to make more decisions independently for a simple reason: the speed of attack.

File photo - A pilot looks up from a U.S. F-22 Raptor fighter as it prepares to refuel in mid-air with a KC-135 refuelling plane over European airspace during a flight to Britain from Mihail Kogalniceanu air base in Romania April 25, 2016.

File photo – A pilot looks up from a U.S. F-22 Raptor fighter as it prepares to refuel in mid-air with a KC-135 refuelling plane over European airspace during a flight to Britain from Mihail Kogalniceanu air base in Romania April 25, 2016.
(REUTERS/Toby Melville)

“Years of operating in uncontested environments provided an opportunity to have some time to make decisions and bring them back into a command center. When troops are in contact and you start targeting in a dynamic environment, you don’t want to over centralize. Let your commanders operate, and trust the guys at the tip of the spear,” Harrigian said.

While pilots and Commanders have of course always had the ability to respond as needed under enemy fire or in intense combat situations, newer threats and advanced, long-range sensor technology will require forward-attackers themselves to operate with even more autonomy.

AIR FORCE TECH STOPS DRONES FROM BEING SHOT DOWN

Advanced command and control technologies, including AI applications and sensor networking are also expected to greatly expedite this kind of tactical approach, as air fighters and commanders on the ground are likely to have a more immediate, informed sense of specific circumstances. Should an enemy fifth-generation fighter or long-range air-attack be incoming, pilots and commanders simply will not have time for a full complement of high-echelon commanders to make a decision regarding counterattack. These combat Tactics, Techniques and Procedures provide key parts of the conceptual inspiration for the Pentagon’s emerging Joint All Domain Command and Control (JADC2) program.

The tactical concept, Harrigian explained, is to “trust the guys at the tip of the spear who understand commanders’ intent.”

“As commanders, we need to do a better job of how we provide intent to support decisions in flight. At the end of the day you need to go from sensor to shooter as quickly as possible,” he added.

During the course of his discussion with Harrigian, Deptula asked about how his experience as an Air Commander fighting against Russian-built air defenses has influenced his tactical thinking. Harrigian specifically cited Russian weapons as an area of particular concern.

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“We don’t want to train every three months. We need muscle memory fighting against air defenses,” he said.

— Kris Osborn is the Managing Editor of Warrior Maven and The Defense Editor of The National Interest –

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The actor, director and all-around force of creative nature on the power of collaboration.

Free Book Preview No BS Guide to Direct Response Social Media Marketing

The ultimate guide to – producing measurable, monetizable results with social media marketing.


5 min read


There’s no right or wrong way to combat the isolation and anxiety brought on by the times we live in. (Well, OK, we can probably all agree that plowing through a Costco shipment of Oreos in one sitting isn’t the most ideal way.)

But research shows that there are two vital ingredients to maintaining mental health and wellness: human connection and the feeling of doing something positive. And both of these come into play in the process of creating something with other people. A study in the journal Art Therapy found that after just 45 minutes of art-making, participants’ levels of cortisol (a chemical in the body associated with stress) were reduced dramatically.

Joseph Gordon-Levitt, a star in movies like The Dark Knight Rises, 500 Days of Summer and Inception, has long understood the positive power of creating alongside others, which is why he founded HITRECORD, an open online community for creative collaboration. Since 2004, HITRECORD has been connecting creators — experts and beginners alike — on passion projects. And this month, Joseph is releasing a six-episode miniseries called CREATE TOGETHER, which showcases the outcomes of those connections and the people behind them.

For an upcoming episode of podcast, I spoke with Joseph about CREATE TOGETHER, and about the more general joy that comes with making something out of nothing. Below are some edited highlights of that conversation. Read it — then go create something!

The joy of making stuff up 

“During this strange time of quarantine and isolation, I found that it’s been really helpful for me to just stay creative, to do something creative every day. But it can be hard to do that alone. To just stare at a blank page and be like, ‘Now I will write!’ Or, you know, ‘Now I’m going to make a song!’ I grew up in collaborative environments on movie sets and shows and I really feed off the creative energy of other people. Years ago, I started this community that’s all about creative collaboration called HITRECORD. And so we decided to just make a show documenting it called CREATE TOGETHER for YouTube originals.”

The movie biz vs. biz biz

“I’m actually getting a really big kick out of building this company, HITRECORD. It is quite different than making a movie or TV show. Sure, there’s some overlap, but building a product or service is different than making a work of art where you put it out and then you never change it again. Businesses are constantly changing, evolving. They’re never done! We’ve gotten amazing advice from great business leaders at places like Casper and Masterclass and Postmates, and we’ve honed our business over the years. It’s been really fascinating, fun, challenging, daunting — and sometimes frustrating. But I’ve really enjoyed it. And yeah, it’s different. It’s different than making art.”

Social media doesn’t have to be evil

“Asking for people to collaborate is different than making something and putting it on social media and saying, ‘Hey, look what I did!’ For me, social media is kind of a recipe for anxiety. I find it to be sort of angst-ridden. We all know what it’s like to put something out there and not get any likes, but I’ll tell you, even when there are a bunch of hearts and likes and retweets, it still doesn’t feel good. For me, I’m just like, ‘That’s all? There should be more! That guy over there has more than I do!’ This is all poisonous to the creative spirit. So our platform is all about collaborating, not just reacting to a finished product. I love getting to make movies — the making part. It’s the being on a set with other people and figuring something out, having a challenge. It’s those moments of the process itself that I really love — finding creative solutions.”

The ultimate reward

“I can say from my experience, it’s never really satisfying when you’re lucky enough to be involved with something that is a ‘hit.’ I have never have felt like, ‘Oh, OK, great! I made it! I’m satisfied!’ That kind of success is never like the satisfaction I get when I take my focus off those external results and put my focus on the inherent rewards of the creative process itself. That’s when I get really jazzed. I’m trying to make something and then I find it and like, ah, there it is. That’s working. And for me, that happens a lot better when I’m doing it together with other people.”

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It wasn’t supposed to be this way.

This Fourth of July, people from coast to coast were supposed to fire up the grill, crack a cold beverage, and crank up the tunes in celebration of yet another Independence Day. Some of you—hell, many of you—will still do so in honor of America’s 244 trips around the sun. But you’ll be doing it in a socially distanced way from the comfort of a home likely subject to lockdown orders thanks to the novel coronavirus pandemic. Holiday concert? Canceled. Fireworks? Fuggeddaboutit. Summertime ballgame? Yer outta here!

That’s okay. On the 10th anniversary of our first-ever list of “100 great things about America,” the editorial staff at Fortune is once again here to help you remember the people, places, things, and ideas that make the United States worth celebrating (even if a few more of us could stand to wear face masks).

As with our prior lists, there are only a few rules. The first: We claim no ranking or exclusivity to this list, so spare us the kvetching when you weigh in at feedback@fortune.com. The second: Deceased folks are disbarred—simple as that. Finally, we suspended our usual “no repeats” rule since our annual observation of this Fortune tradition has been a bit spotty. (One too many cold ones, we’re afraid.)

Oh, and one more thing: This list was originally the brainchild of former Fortune top editor Andy Serwer, who as it so happens also decided this year to revive the lost tradition over at Yahoo Finance. Great minds, Andy. Here’s to America—and to you.

Who and what made this year’s list? Read on to find out.

Contributors: Megan Arnold, Kristen Bellstrom, Daniel Bentley, Maria Carmicino, Lee Clifford, Geoff Colvin, Scott DeCarlo, Mia Diehl, Josue Evilla, Nicole Goodkind, Robert Hackett, Armin Harris, Matt Heimer, Alison Klooster, Verne Kopytoff, Michal Lev-Ram, McKenna Moore, David Z. Morris, Sy Mukherjee, Andrew Nusca, Brian O’Keefe, Aaron Pressman, Rachel Schallom, Jonathan Vanian, Bernhard Warner, Jen Wieczner

1.) #MeToo movement

A movement that started in the U.S. and went on to rock the global patriarchy.

2.) Athleisure

Because Americans invented—and reinvented—casual dressing.

3.) Bagels

The perfect breakfast—and sometimes lunch—carbohydrate, this dense and chewy classic has yet to be replicated, let alone improved upon, outside of America’s borders, European bakeries and pastry shops be damned. Just try being jet-lagged—or worse, hung over—in a foreign airport and you’ll never miss home so much. Sure, the bagel may have originated in Eastern Europe, but it was perfected in New York and New Jersey. Besides: What more could you possibly want out of life after enjoying an everything bagel? (Another, maybe.)

4.) Baseball caps

Baseball is fine. Baseball hats? Amazing.

5.) Basketball

Invented out of thin air (by a Canadian!) in America, now the most popular sport in China.

6.) BBQ

Sliced brisket at Hill Country BBQ on June 16, 2017, in Washington, D.C.
Bill O’Leary—The Washington Post via Getty Images

Carolina vinegar or Memphis-style sweet sauce. Pulled pork or beef brisket. Dallas or Kansas City. We love to argue about it. We love to eat it. And it’s all-American.

7.) Beyoncé

The most powerful force in music today.

8.) Big-box stores

Not all good to be sure, but great for stocking up during, say, a pandemic.

9.) Blueberries

Low in calories and high in antioxidants, these super-healthy berries are native to North America. The U.S. is the world’s largest producer of them. And they’re delicious in muffins and smoothies. Pretty great.

10.) Bob Dylan

A production still from “Rolling Thunder Revue: A Bob Dylan Story by Martin Scorsese” on Netflix.
NetflIx

He is a sage, a whisperer of the times. From “Like a Rolling Stone” to “Murder Most Foul,” he is able to capture things about society in a way that only American folk music can.

11.) Bourbon whiskey

It is delicious.

12.) The California coastline

The rugged coastal headlands of Big Sur California.
Alan Majchrowicz—Getty Images

Eight-hundred-and-forty miles of waterfront that includes deserts, redwood forests, cranky sea lions, Marine Corps helipads, and much more—and almost all of it publicly accessible, thanks to state laws that put public access first.

13.) Carole King

She broke the gender barrier in modern pop-music songwriting, and she did it the American way—by writing better songs that kicked the boys’ club’s butts on the Billboard charts.

14.) The Census

Everyone in the U.S. has a chance to get counted, and therefore determine congressional representation and federal funding. And it’s happening now.

15.) Cocktails

Were they created in the U.S. by the pioneering bartender Jerry Thomas in the mid-1800s, or much earlier in Europe? Whatever the case, Americans put the modern mixed drink on the map.

16.) Coffee to go

Whether you prefer yours Frappuccino-style (a.k.a. “a sheet cake in a cup”), or as a flat white over ice, America has all the options covered. And no matter your rush, you can always get it to go and take it with you–which is, after all, when you need coffee the most.

17.) Corn on the cob

This quintessential summertime treat was here before most Americans’ ancestors—and today, the U.S. leads the world in corn production. It’s also a key ingredient in bourbon. Any questions?

18.) Dolly Parton

The podcast Dolly Parton’s America was a surprise hit last year—but it shouldn’t have been a surprise, because this dynamic country singer-songwriter is a national treasure. If giving the world “Jolene,” “9-to-5,” and Dollywood weren’t enough, Parton has donated more than 130 million books through her Imagination Library.

19.) Domestic beer

Get out of here with your imports. Whether you prefer a taste of the Rockies or something more hop-ular, only American brew will do.

20.) Drive-in movie theaters

“Jurassic Park” screening at the Wellfleet Drive-In Theatre in Wellfleet, Mass., on June 25, 2020. The drive-in originally opened in July 1957.
Craig F. Walker—The Boston Globe via Getty Images

Who knew we’d need them more than ever in 2020? For movies, graduations, and now even live concerts, drive-ins are the (socially distanced) way to go.

21.) Fall leaf peeping

A great American tradition to watch the forests shed their summer greens and put on a multihued display that outstrips even a Monet painting.

22.) Fender

Founded in Southern California and found on stages around the world, this guitarmaker’s latest digital moves give us hope that it’ll last for generations to come.

23.) The First Amendment

100 Greatest Things about America 2020
People kneel and raise their fists in the air for eight minutes and 46 seconds—the time that George Floyd was pinned under a police officer’s knee—during a march and protest to mark the Juneteenth holiday at the Martin Luther King Jr. Memorial on June 19, 2020, in Washington, D.C.
Chip Somodevilla—Getty Images

Freedom of speech. The right of the people to peaceably assemble. Still driving progress in 2020.

24.) Frank Lloyd Wright

The architect who gave the world some of its most beautiful buildings.

25.) Free ice water (at restaurants)

In the U.S., restaurants almost uniformly give you endless cold water in large glasses. That’s the dream.

26.) Frenchmen Street, New Orleans

When the barf-brigade party bros chased the real musicians off of Bourbon Street, this is where a lot of them landed. A great place to hear N.O. brass bands, big band jazz, creole and cajun folk, and everything else that makes up the primal stew of modern American music.

27.) Fruit pies

“American Pie” is a hokey song but American pies are unquestionably delicious.

28.) GMC Hummer EV

The most American vehicle on the planet is revived as a 1,000 horsepower, zero emissions pickup truck. How’s that for a Hollywood-quality comeback story?

29.) The Grateful Dead

The quintessential 1960s hippie band whose mix of rock, blues, bluegrass, and jazz has transcended the decades since. We miss you, Jerry!

30.) Gritty

Flyers mascot Gritty entertains fans during the game between the Pittsburgh Penguins and Philadelphia Flyers on January 21, 2020, at Wells Fargo Center in Philadelphia.
Kyle Ross—Icon Sportswire via Getty Images

The idiosyncratic, delightful, and vaguely threatening mascot of the Philadelphia Flyers hockey team is exactly what sports fans need when professional leagues have been sidelined from the pandemic. The roles of America’s superego and ego may be up for debate, but there is little doubt that Gritty is the country’s id.

31.) HBCUs

Historically black colleges and universities have been pillars of the Black community and have given Black Americans the opportunity for higher education when no one else would. From Morehouse and Spelman to Cheyney and Hampton, HBCUs have been, and remain, massive contributors to American culture at large.

32.) High school marching bands

Like a brass-heavy, nonfatal train wreck you just can’t look away from. Who thought this was a good idea? And yet you walk away with an unironic smile on your face. Awesome.

33.) U.S. higher education system

Sure, the financial aspect is a bit…funky, shall we say. (Fortune is, ahem, a family publication.) But the United States is still the uncontested best place in the world to get a college or post-collegiate education. For now: Continuing cuts to public university funding, the increasing parsimony of well-endowed private schools, and restrictions on the ability of international students to come here are looming existential threats to one of America’s most singular advantages.

34.) Hot dogs, corn dogs, and chili cheese dogs (with curly fries and a cherry Coke)

Sara Lee brand Best Kosher Hot Dogs and State Fair Corn Dogs are free for the eating during the American Meat Institute’s Annual Hot Dog Day Lunch in the courtyard of the Rayburn House Office Building July 23, 2008, in Washington, D.C.
Chip Somodevilla—Getty Images

When it comes to the hot dog (née wiener or frankfurther), even COVID-19 can’t stop American demand for cheap meat on a bun. As for corn dogs, we cede the floor to Fortune’s Michal Lev-Ram for an anecdote: “I moved to the U.S. when I was in third grade and still remember my first time eating a corn dog for school lunch. I had no idea there would be a hot dog inside when I bit into it. I totally remember my mixture of disgust and pleasure at the discovery, and wonderment for why this concoction was put on a stick to begin with. But to this day it’s one of my favorite memories of my first few days in America.” And a chili cheese dog with curly fries and a cherry Coke? “No other nation on earth could possibly have created this,” our own Geoff Colvin notes. As usual, he’s right.

35.) Immigrants

From the kitchens of New York City’s best restaurants to the boardrooms of Fortune 500 companies, you don’t have to look far to see the immeasurable contributions that immigrants make to life in the United States.

36.) Jazz music

From the pioneering and progressive stylings of Miles Davis to the approachable (if not bland) Kenny G, jazz is a uniquely American creation that resonates with seemingly everyone, from academics to Average Joes. Plus: We wouldn’t have hip-hop as we know it without jazz; numerous hip-hop hits contain jazz samples dating back decades.

37.) Jewish deli food

100 Greatest Things about America 2020
Katz’s Delicatessen in the Lower East Side neighborhood of New York. Katz’s Deli opened in 1888 and is famous for a key scene in the film “When Harry Met Sally”… as well as its delicatessen cuisine.
Richard Levine—Corbis/Getty Images

Cel-Ray soda, whitefish salad, smoked salmon…it’s too good to be true. Our pick? Katz’s Delicatessen, a New York City institution just a brief subway ride away from Fortune headquarters. “I don’t even eat beef and I scarf down an entire pastrami sandwich when I go,” our own McKenna Moore says. “I’ve been craving it from Brooklyn for the entire pandemic!”

38.) Khan Academy

Founded by Louisiana native Salman Khan, this Silicon Valley nonprofit creates free online video lessons covering an array of subjects and available in dozens of languages. A free, world-class education for anyone, anywhere? We dig it.

39.) Killer Mike

Run the Jewels frontman Killer Mike at All Points East Festival in May 2019.
Joe Quigg—Ray-Ban via Getty Images

Killer Mike is a hip-hop artist and social activist whose influential collaborative Run the Jewels has never shied away from tackling issues of systemic inequality, racism, and various other American ills. His songs are bangers and his social justice sermons speak to an American tradition of speaking out on behalf of the oppressed—even if it’s uncomfortable. As protests raged in Atlanta, Killer Mike gave a passionate speech to its city council speaking to the pain of Black Americans while cautioning that residents shouldn’t burn down their cities, especially if such activity afflicts those who are already aggrieved. Why is Killer Mike so interesting? Because the man embodies American contradictions. (He delivered a speech urging peace while wearing a shirt that said “Kill Your Masters.”) Rage and empathy can be a duopoly, but Killer Mike’s lyricism captures the moment and feeling in a way few other things can.

40.) LeBron James

King James overcame inner-city poverty to become the greatest (male) athlete of his generation—as well as an entrepreneur, public educator, and activist.

41.) Leslie Jordan

This Tennessean actor’s Instagram is one of the very few not positively awful things to come out of the pandemic.

42.) Lin-Manuel Miranda and Hamilton

How great is a composer-lyricist-composer-actor-rapper who can turn a historical figure—a former Treasury Secretary, no less—into a Broadway sensation? Five-plus years later, the musical Hamilton remains one of the most moving pieces of art Broadway has ever produced—and Miranda its multitalented creator.

43.) Lizzo

It’s practically illegal to be upset when listening to Lizzo’s music. She is the singer-songwriter we needed at this time.

44.) Lobster rolls

Who would ever think that a food once intended for prisoners would be so damn delicious?

45.) Long highways

The interchange between the 105 and 110 freeways in Los Angeles on May 1, 2020.
Patrick T. Fallon—Bloomberg via Getty Images

Call ’em highways, freeways, or turnpikes, but five of the world’s 10 longest such roadways are located in the U.S. And there’s nothing more American than hitting the open road. (See No. 68.)

46.) Mamma Mia

The music of a Swedish music group leads to a British musical that becomes a popular American movie franchise set in Greece. We know.

47.) Marfa, Texas

This little art town in middle-of-nowhere West Texas with a population of less than 2,000 represents the American ability to create something out of nothing and also our love of keeping it weird, even in socially conservative parts of the country.

48.) Marvel Cinematic Universe

It’s as if producers are saying, “We will continue to make these films whether you want to watch them or not.” (But who are we kidding—we will.)

49.) Mel Brooks

A uniquely American spirit, his Borscht Belt humor has defined what comedy means for multiple generations.

50.) Metropolitan Museum of Art

The largest art museum in the U.S. and one of the most-visited in the world. And for locals—New York State residents and students from Connecticut and New Jersey—the price of admission is still “as you wish.”

51.) Mike Trout

Baseball is coming back this month. (We hope.) If the games are actually held, check out Trout—that is, provided he’s willing to take the field. At age 28, the Los Angeles Angel has already established himself as one of the greatest players of all time.

52.) NASA

100 Greatest Things about America 2020
Astronaut Buzz Aldrin standing beside the United States flag. Apollo 11, the first manned lunar landing mission, was launched on July 16, 1969.
SSPL/Getty Images

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration will turn 62 this month, and it’s still learning new tricks decades after it first put people on the moon. Witness the launch on May 30 of a private rocket at the Kennedy Space Center in Florida carrying two NASA astronauts to the International Space Station—a historic collaboration with SpaceX (see No. 75).

53.) National Park System & National Seashore

These shining examples of the best of America’s landscape are more than mere parks—they’re national treasures. What’s more, you can visit each (or all 2,000-plus of them) for significantly less than the cost of an Amazon Prime subscription.

54.) New York City

Okay we’re a bit biased—Fortune is headquartered here. Because even when the city that (usually) never sleeps took a bit of a nap during the pandemic, it remained unquestionably the best, most alive city in the world. In lieu of Broadway, people gathered outside of hospitals to conduct standing ovations for health workers. Instead of taxis, bicycles cruised down the middle of Times Square. Even as the city became the early epicenter of the coronavirus outbreak in the U.S., its leaders still read the room—and New Yorkers’ don’t-tell-me-what-to-do-attitude—and stopped short of ordering “shelter in place” (but still convinced enough people to stay home by terming it “NYC on pause”) to shrink COVID-19 case numbers to among the lowest in the country. New York proved that, even besieged, it remains undiminished as the city where anything is possible.

55.) New York Mets

The New York Mets baseball team is, in a way, emblematic of the American spirit itself. We love to root for the underdog. We feel okay booing our own team. And when we do win? Man, it’s great feeling. (Editor’s note: Another great thing about America is the right to vehemently object. Go Phils.)

56.) Night + Market

This popular trio of Los Angeles restaurants led by 37-year-old Kris Yenbamroong is a fiery mashup of Thai street flavors and rock ‘n’ roll swagger—in other words, all American.

57.) Nike sneakers

Nikes are the new jeans.

58.) Old Navy flag T-shirts

The Fourth of July store to end all Fourth of July stores.

59.) Oprah Winfrey

No explanation necessary.

60.) Linguistic optimism

Most languages have far too many tenses—those dedicated to hypotheticals, conditionals, and different times. Americans easily get by with the big three: past, present, and future (and usually just the latter two). It’s a stripped-down confidence no nation can rival.

61.) Prestige TV

Actor Idris Elba in a 2002 still from “The Wire.” (Courtesy HBO)

Cinema may have originated in Europe, but it took American cinematic genius to create The Wire, Mad Men, The Sopranos, and the other series that have arguably topped film when it comes to storytelling power.

62.) Prolific authors

Nora Roberts, Janet Evanovich, Danielle Steel, Stephen King, and others keep us wanting more. (And more.)

63.) Public libraries

Even in a time of pandemic, local libraries around the country are meeting the reading and community-gathering needs of patrons, whether through ebook lending, online book groups, or even the distribution of portable Internet hotspots.

64.) Rap music

Built in America, it quickly took over the world. Rap is popular music.

65.) Richard Nelson’s Apple Family plays

The prolific Chicago-born playwright’s turf is contemporary politics as seen through the eyes of an upstate New York family, the Apples. Inspired by COVID-19’s transformation of American life, Nelson added to his existing four Apple plays with two that are set during the pandemic and performed from each actor’s home. Both were made available for free viewing online, although donations to support the hard-hit theater community are, as you’d expect, gratefully accepted.

66.) Rihanna

An immigrant from Barbados, Rihanna relocated to the U.S. in 2005 and hasn’t stopped putting out bangers since. As of 2019, she is the world’s wealthiest female musician, according to estimates. Before her 30th birthday, she launched cosmetics brand Fenty (her surname), and the world found love with the now gold standard for superior quality across a broad range of skin tones. Objectively too good for Drake, she’s put in the work, work, work, work, work for humanitarian causes important to her, including Black Lives Matter. So rain or shine, we stand under RiRi’s umbrella.

67.) Rivalries

Coke versus Pepsi. Red Sox versus Yankees. Musk vs. Zuck. In America, rivalries never go out of style.

68.) Road trips

A uniquely American vacation phenomenon—hated by children, loved by adults. Mile after mile of highway monotony (on some of the world’s longest roads; see No. 45), punctuated by stunning scenery, gas stations, greasy food, and history.

69.) Robert Caro

The journalist and author (The Power Broker, The Years of Lyndon Johnson) has demonstrated that he is ready and willing to research the history of our country for decades to unearth stories and bring them to us in an easy-to-understand folksy manner.

70.) Sandwiches

A muffuletta sandwich at Central Grocery in New Orleans on Aug. 11, 2015.
Melina Mara—The Washington Post via Getty Images

Muffulettas. Hot browns. Cheesesteaks. Reubens. Patty melts. Turkey clubs. Travel around the world—or not; thanks, coronavirus—and it’s clear that the U.S. of A. has a clear edge when it comes to the alchemy between two pieces of bread. Brits invented sandwiches; Americans perfected them.

71.) Santa Claus

Sure, Kris Kringle has roots in most of Western Christendom, but the modern incarnation of Saint Nick comes from the 19th-century New York scholar Clement Clarke Moore.

72.) Satellite radio

Though it actually debuted in the Middle East, satellite radio never caught on anywhere like it did in the U.S. It’s a technology that combines Americans’ love of endless choice with our “my car is my home” lifestyle.

73.) Saturday Night Live

SNL: 45 years on TV and better than ever.

74.) Silicon Valley

The area in California, not the satirical television show. (We’ll be sure to save that for another year.) Yes, the Valley has come under fire lately for unethical data-collection practices and a general cavalier attitude toward business, but it remains responsible for some of the biggest technology breakthroughs in history. There’s a reason other countries say their tech hubs are the “Silicon Valley of [insert location here].”

75.) SpaceX

Founder and CEO Elon Musk may have grown up in South Africa, but his Los Angeles–area space company has American astronauts blasting off for space exploration from American soil again.

76.) Spike Lee

The writer-director we need more than ever at this moment in American history is back with a moving new film, Da 5 Bloods. There are plenty of great American directors, but who has poked and prodded and reexamined America and American history with more urgency than Spike?

77.) Spiked seltzer

“It’s just so good.” —An unnamed member of Fortune’s staff

78.) Stephen Colbert

Stephen Colbert and guest Kesha during his show on Jan. 10, 2020.
Scott Kowalchyk—CBS via Getty Images

Few comedians are able to capture the absurdity of living in America like the CBS Late Show host.

79.) Steven Spielberg

America’s foremost maestro of blockbuster movies has never gone out of style—but he’s having a moment as rereleases of some of his classic films, Jaws and Jurassic Park, duke it out for the top spot of the box office at drive-ins. (See No. 20.)

80.) Streaming video

Netflix. Amazon Prime. Disney Plus. Hulu. We wouldn’t be watching British crime dramas, or Scandinavian murder mysteries, or Japanese yakuza shows, were it not for this American innovation. America brought it to the world—and now we need it to survive the pandemic.

81.) Summer vacation

American children take it for granted, but other countries—such as Germany—make their kids go to school in the summer.

82.) Tater tots

Whether the trademarked versions by Oregon’s own Ore-Ida or another variety, tots are arguably the most perfect form of potato that exists. Undeniably American, undeniably delicious.

83.) Tex-Mex food

Out of the Rio Grande Valley comes a delicious shared cuisine where Mexico’s tortillas, pico de gallo, and guacamole get friendly with ground beef, beans, and cheese. The ultimate comfort food.

84.) The blues

Blues guitarist Buddy Guy on the closing night of the 2019 Montreal Jazz Festival on July 6, 2019, in Montreal.
Roberta Parkin—Getty Images

A uniquely American music form, and the root of most if not all modern music—especially rock ‘n’ roll. It is pain, joy, and poetry wrapped inside repeating progression chords and a soundtrack to the history of America.

85.) The dollar

The world’s reserve currency has given Americans access to immense cheap capital and helped finance our sometimes profligate public spending. But thanks to decades of steady hands on the tiller, the dollar has also given the world a stable, trusted medium of exchange, smoothing the rails for globalization and making everyone richer—including millions of regular people worldwide for whom cash dollars are a valued shelter from unstable local currencies.

86.) The iPhone

Apple’s ubiquitous device that kicked off the smartphone revolution may be manufactured abroad but it was, and still is, “Designed in California.”

87.) The Last Dance

Even if you don’t like basketball or Michael Jordan, the drama and excitement of watching the ascension of the 1990s Chicago Bulls basketball team (complete with the vintage ’90s soundtrack) in this ESPN documentary series will be the best 10 hours you’ll have spent in a long time. Plus: Nothing will make you feel more American than watching MJ in a beret stormed by rabid French fans in Paris.

88.) The Legacy Museum

100 Greatest Things about America 2020
Equal Justice Initiative founder Bryan Stevenson speaks to the media at the Legacy Museum in Montgomery on Jan. 17, 2020.
Mickey Welsh—Montgomery Advertiser/USA Today/Reuters

Located in Montgomery, the museum and accompanying memorial opened in 2018 and was developed by lawyer and activist Bryan Stevenson and his Equal Justice Initiative organization to examine slavery and its continuing effects, including the mass incarceration of Black Americans.

89.) The prairie

Sure, New Yorkers might not realize it—but there are thousands of miles of land in this country that are essentially empty. This lush land drove settlers to leave the East Coast and strike out to make their fortunes. Plus: Prairie fashion!

90.) Shopping malls

Nobody else builds temples to retail like Americans do. (Though the competition with parts of Asia is fierce.) Malls arguably peaked in the 1980s, but now the retrograde architecture is part of their charm.

91.) The Simpsons

100 Greatest Things about America 2020
Matt Groening with the Simpsons.
Douglas Kirkland—Corbis/Getty Images

The Americans didn’t invent satire, but Matt Groening and company took it to another animated level. Turn on the TV in more than 70 countries and you’ll find Homer, Bart, Marge, and Lisa. The Simpsons is American soft power at its best, poking fun at enduring institutions and modern life.

92.) The Smithsonian

The Space Shuttle Discovery and Kermit the Frog are among the 154 million items belonging to “the nation’s attic.” Best of all: Its 19 museums, 21 libraries, nine research centers, and zoo are open to the public for free.

93.) The stock market

No other country in the world offers the opportunity to make money as easily, and with as little risk, as the United States. You could put all your savings in U.S. stocks, leave them there indefinitely, and come out significantly richer by virtually doing nothing, proven over nearly every medium-term time period.

94.) Theaster Gates

A Chicago-based artist and entrepreneur testing the idea that you can rebuild a ravaged community around visual and performing arts.

95.) U.S. Women’s National Soccer Team

Megan Rapinoe and Alex Morgan of the United States celebrate with teammates after winning the 2019 FIFA Women’s World Cup France final match between the U.S. and the Netherlands at Stade de Lyon on July 7, 2019, in Lyon, France.
Jose Breton—NurPhoto via Getty Images

Four championships in seven tournaments. A murderer’s row of athletic talent. Pioneers of equal pay. Among the greatest teams that the U.S. has ever fielded in any sport.

96.) U.S. Postal Service

100 Greatest Things about America 2020
A United States Postal Service letter carrier wears a protective mask and gloves while delivering mail in Fairfax, Va., May 19, 2020.
Andrew Harrer—Bloomberg/Getty Images

Even as the organization battles for its life, it remains a small miracle that you can send a letter to anyone anywhere in the country for 55 cents. A vital institution for connecting rural Americans to the rest of the country and a force for propelling Black Americans and military veterans into the middle class when private organizations weren’t as up to the task.

97.) Venture capital

It’s not without its shortcomings, certainly. But the American venture capital system, which over the past decade has been adopted as far away as Israel and Japan, has been a great exporter of Americans’ willingness to take risks and innovate. (It’s right there in the name.) We may not have many frontiers left, but capitalism itself can be a great adventure.

98.) Venus & Serena Williams

100 Greatest Things about America 2020
Serena Williams is hugged by her sister Venus Williams after the women’s singles round three match in Arthur Ashe Stadium at the 2018 U.S. Open Tennis Tournament.
Tim Clayton—Corbis/Getty Images

The Williams sisters changed tennis—and sports!—forever, putting a distinctly American stamp on a game that’s long been associated with upper-crust Europeans.

99.) Willie Nelson

A quintessentially American songwriter who has embraced every genre from Tin Pan Alley to bluegrass to grunge to Aerosmith-style cheez metal. He changed the Nashville sound permanently—then left it all behind for more space (and better marijuana) in his home state of Texas.

100.) Wrigley Field

Old, obsolete, unforgettable.

101.) Yard & garage sales

This American tradition is not only climate-friendly—repurposing things!—but it’s cheap and fun.

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Opinions expressed by Entrepreneur contributors are their own.


As a product manager first at Google, then Reddit and Pinterest, Tyler Odean knows a thing or two about the power of persuasion.

The secret, he says, isn’t so much having a world-changing idea. It’s about getting people on the same page.

“The reality is that visionaries like Steve Jobs haven’t been successful because they thought of something amazing and original out of thin air,” Odean said in a 2018 interview. “Rather, they were gifted at constantly persuading many people to follow them on their journey to something amazing and original.”

Odean has been giving talks on persuasion for years, drawing on the principles that psychologist Daniel Kahneman outlines in his book, Thinking Fast and Slow.

Kahneman argues that the brain has two systems for experiencing information: System 1 is fast, automatic, and mostly unconscious. System 2 is slow and deliberate, and requires deeper, more analytical thought.

When it comes to constructing an argument or message, being logically correct is not enough. While an idea may appeal to System 2, you need System 1 on board, too.

“When we look at what visionaries really succeed at, they give us a confident, consistent and coherent plan that makes us feel safe,” says Odean.

“We trust them not because their vision is perfect, but because they have it under control. They communicate clearly without giving us all the answers. What most people think of as vision is actually persuasion.”

To be a successful entrepreneur entails much more than convincing people to buy your product or invest in your company. It means creating a deep network of connections who are enthusiastic about your idea and seeing it grow. Here are a few ideas on how to start.

Related: 5 Ways to Become More Persuasive

Establish credibility

In addition to pathos (the appeal to emotion), and logos (logical arguments), Aristotle believed that good character, or ethos, was one of the three main pillars of persuasive speech. This is because no matter how well-reasoned or logical an argument is, it won’t matter if the audience doesn’t trust the person making it.

In his now-famous TED Talk on reforming the criminal justice system, Human Rights Attorney Bryan Stevenson opens not with a list of degrees he’s earned or prestigious awards he’s won, but by saying: “I spend most of my time in jails, in prisons, on death row. I spend most of my time in very low-income communities in the projects and places where there’s a great deal of hopelessness.”

This information is far more important to listeners who don’t know who he is, or why they should trust what he’s saying.

Another integral component of establishing credibility, of course, is being honest. A single lie or misrepresentation can often be enough to cause permanent harm to a professional reputation.

As Warren Buffett said: “It takes 20 years to build a reputation and five minutes to ruin it.”

Really listen

When it comes to being persuasive, it’s important to show people that you can provide a real solution to a problem.

To do that effectively, you have to listen to your audience to really understand what they need and how you can help.

Most of us overestimate our ability to listen. But it’s an important skill to cultivate if we want to be persuasive.

When talking to someone, give them your full attention. Look them in the eye and use their name throughout the conversation. Don’t interrupt. This sends the message that you value that person and their opinion.

Moreover, research shows that if you want to persuade someone, it’s better to listen carefully and respond based on their perspective. With time, the trust that is built through careful listening will enable a leader to influence decisions.

Related: 9 Things Persuasive People Do

Make your voice effective

One of the great things about the art of persuasion is that it hasn’t changed much in the last 2,000 years. That’s partially thanks to the fixed nature of our attention spans.

“Aristotle had discovered that there are fairly universal limits to the amount of information which any human can absorb and retain,” Edith Hall, a professor at King’s College, wrote in Aristotle’s Way. “When it comes to persuasion, less is always more.”

When making a point persuasively, Aristotle said that an argument should be expressed “as compactly and in as few words as possible.”

To do this, drop every extraneous word you can from every message you send. Because, according to Odean, if the argument you’re making is too dense, System 2 will be called in to analyze it, and System 1 won’t even have a chance to take a swing.

In that vein, Aristotle also observed that the first thing you say is the most important, since “attention slackens everywhere else rather than at the beginning.” In other words, open strong, since that’s when your audience is the most captive.

Tell a story

When appealing to childlike System 1, there’s almost nothing more effective than a well-told story. People pay attention differently when they’re hearing a narrative instead of just facts—especially when it applies directly to their interests. According to a 2014 analysis of the 500 most popular TED talks of all time, stories made up 65 percent of the average speaker’s talk.

How to use storytelling for persuasion? The key is to create connections between what your audience is thinking, what they already believe, and what you want them to believe. Layer in facts that will add credibility, using either yourself or someone you know.

As for picking a story, a good rule of thumb is that the most personal content is the most relatable.

As TED curator Chris Anderson put it, “The stories that can generate the best connection are stories about you personally or about people close to you. Tales of failure, awkwardness, misfortune, danger or disaster, told authentically, hastens deep engagement.”

Be confident

In order for others to believe in you, you have to believe in yourself.

It may sound hokey, but it’s true. Think about it: Are you more likely to believe in someone who appears anxious or unsure, or someone who speaks with authority?

When you speak, people begin to make decisions as a result of the way you communicate. To project confidence, speak calmly and in clear, straightforward sentences. The goal isn’t to sound like a robot, but a competent person who’s prepared and informed. Try to avoid filler adjectives such as “like,” “uh,” and “you know.” If it helps, map out what you intend to say before you say it.

Even if you’re filled with self-doubt, you can fake it — until, eventually, it feels genuine.

Related: Be More Persuasive by Answering These 3 Questions

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Companies across the globe face unprecedented times with most people now in lockdown as governments try to manage the effects of the Covid-19. As economies stutter, job losses are inevitable and for those lucky enough to be in employment many will work from home for the foreseeable future. The outlook may seem gloomy but the crisis may open up opportunities for some businesses to grow. Here are some tips on how remote workers can help your company grow during a down economy.

Optimize team costs by working with the best 

Job losses are expected at many companies around the world, meaning there is a lot of amazing talent out there looking for new opportunities. This offers some companies a unique chance to grow by building a strong remote team featuring the best people in the business. The process of finding employees is long and complicated. The CMO of celebrity and topical news site AmoMama, Ivan Borokh, suggests “Companies ought to utilize expert support wherever possible. For example, working with local and international job sites to post vacancies and filter candidates will ensure you’ll attract employees and partners who might have not considered your company otherwise.” 

Related: How to Make Your Business Fully Remote in 7 Steps

Another top tip of Ivan’s is to seek recommendations from current staff. It is usually the case that high performers often surround themselves with people on the same level and will therefore only recommend professionals they know and trust.

Hiring the right person initially is the most effective way to optimize team costs as these specialist hires can work autonomously with little management but with the right tools and support. The benefits of this strategy are many, your company focus will be results-based and less admin related and the costs of office space and other rigid systems will be vastly reduced leaving your workforce happier, more flexible, and motivated to grow within your business.

Create experiences worth coming back for

One thing that often sets competing parties apart is the customer or user experience. The most popular and visited companies tend to have developed their user experience from the beginning so that even if they grow, they still provide the same or better experience as when they started. 

As customer experience expert Paul Hagen suggests, “look at what sets your business apart, what makes you different and unique? Then ensure your customers have a clear grasp of what that is and it shouldn’t change if you scale.  

Having great experiences is what leads people to come back for more. It is often said that repeat business is the cornerstone to success so if you get this right you are already on the way to growth and success.”

Scale your business in the right way

Once on the up, it is important to know how to scale your business in order to sustain the momentum built. Investing in the people you have and complementing them with new additions is a good start as these are your first evangelists and they can help shape and influence the direction your business takes. Having a clear purpose, vision, and values from the outset combined with continuous training and mentorship will encourage those working for you to stick around and care about your business. 

Related: What Nobody Tells You About Remote Work

As you grow, it is crucial you stick to the principles you founded your company on and not try to imitate larger companies. Being authentic is a key characteristic that keeps and increases business trust, goodwill, and engagement. So not only will you benefit from employees staying at your company for longer, your customers and partners will also stick around longer as they see the foundations you are built on are strong and secure.

Making the most out of new technology is a must when scaling a business. There is a multitude of software and tools to help remote workforces organize, communicate, and distribute workflows efficiently and effectively. Using technology can help a business deliver its services or product without having to hire additional staff.

Diversify: Do not depend on one partner or provider

Whether your business delivers a product or service, relying on one supplier or provider seldom allows you to grow. In fact, it may be detrimental to your business as you run the risk of said supplier/provider holding all the cards when it comes to provision, and negotiation. What happens if they fail? Your business may also follow!

Related: How to Support Introverted Remote Workers

In this age of technology and internet accessibility, it should be very easy to find trusted collaborators. Diversifying allows you to be flexible as you can try new ways of doing things that may not be possible with a sole partner. Having this variety to hand is crucial to attracting new customers as well as hold on to the ones you have – don’t go stale! 

A good example is split testing in marketing and advertising. It dictates that you test content on multiple channels and tweak it to fit each individual platform to capture different audiences and new markets. Sticking to one channel severely limits the opportunities to grow your audience in this instance.  

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